Weight: 15-21 kg (33-46 lbs) *up to 30 kg (66 lbs) in managed care: 10-15 kg (22-33 lbs) Data sources: Kingdon (1997); Zinner (2013) General Appearance ... Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) Male hamadryas with characteristic dog-like muzzle, grey mantle and bare hind-end. Rather than trees, these primates prefer to live near high cliffs where they can gain access to acacia, opuntia cactus, and a water source. These sleeping sites are usually These females, known as the "central females", stay in closer proximity to the harem male than the other females. In the wild, record longevity is 27 years. Some baboons are big and some are comparably small. Baboons have been shown both in captivity and in the wild to age about twice as fast as humans . Baboons contain long and dog-like muzzles. Size, Weight, and Lifespan The hamadryas baboon is sexually dimorphic, accounting for a great variance in size between males and females. Habitat. Swedell L, Schreier A (2009) "Male aggression towards females in hamadryas baboons: Conditioning, coercion, and control". They may migrate seasonally, moving into mountain areas during the wet season. Savannas and woodlands. All baboons, especially the Hamadryas baboons spend more time on the ground than other monkey species. The face, rump, hands, and feet are bare, but fur covers the rest of the body. However, males within the same clan tend to be related and respect the social bonds of their kin. The 5 species of baboons are Papio ursinus (Chacma Baboon), Papio papio (Guinea Baboon), Papio hamadryas (Hamadryas Baboon), and Papio anubis (Olive Baboon), and the Papio cynocephalus (Yellow Baboon). These regions provide habitats with the advantage for this species of fewer natural predators than central or southern Africa where other baboons reside. Males will generally have a mane or ruff. Swedell L, Tesfaye T (2003) "Infant Mortality After Takeovers in Wild Ethiopian Hamadryas Baboons". Hamadryas baboons live in a family group known as a one male unit (OMU). Description: Hamadryas Baboons are grey-brown in colour.  Females can spend about as much time with other females as they do with the harem males, and some females will even interact with each other outside of their harems. , The Grand Babouin sacré "hamadryas" is among Rembrandt Bugatti's most celebrated sculptures. At birth the young baboon weighs 600 - 900 g (21 - 32 oz) and they are black in colour. The hamadryas baboon range is the north east Africa and can be hunted in Ethiopia only. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! It has a small non-prehensile tail. A haremoften includes a younger "follower" male that may be related to the leader. Adult males have a pronounced cape (mane and mantle), silver-white in color, which they develop around the age of ten, while the females are capeless and brown all over. They have heavy and strong jaws.  Females do most of the parenting. Many mummified bodies of these baboons have been unearthed, and the hamadryas is said to have been trained by the Egyptians to perform many tasks. The dominant male of a one-male unit does most of the mating, though other males may occasionally sneak in copulations, as well. This kidnapping can lead to dehydration or starvation for the infant.  No major range-wide threats exist at present, although locally it may be at risk through loss of habitat due to major agricultural expansion and irrigation projects. Weight: 70 - 135lbs / 32 - 61kg; Baboon Habitat and Requirements. Swedell, L.(2002):b "Ranging Behavior, Group Size and Behavioral Flexibility in Ethiopian Hamadryas Baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas)". They climb trees, but don’t stand out with good agility. In: This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 10:55. A predynastic precursor to Astennu was Babi, or "Bull of the Baboons", a bloodthirsty god said to eat the entrails of the unrighteous dead.  Bands may fight with one another over food or territory, and the adult male leaders of the units are the usual combatants. There is some geographical variation in average size. The dominant male tolerates the young and will carry and play with them. Social structures are complex and full of intricate behaviors. Hamadryas baboons live in groups averaging around 50 individuals. The hamadryas baboon (/ˌhæməˈdraɪəs/; Papio hamadryas) is a species of baboon from the Old World monkey family.  Despite this, some social differences between the females occur. Hamadryas baboons are found in Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. Kummer, H. "A Male Dominated Society: The Hamadryas Baboon of Cone Rock, Ethiopia. Baboons are intelligent and opportunistic creatures which belong to the Cercopithecinae family and papio genus. Other males will attempt to kidnap juvenile females and thus start their own new group. Hamadryas baboons also eat insects, worms, reptiles, birds, and small mammals, including antelope. 50 to 76 centimeters at the shoulder (20 to 30 inches) Life span. Dominant male baboons prevent other males from coming into close contact with their infants. Hamadryas, (Papio hamadryas), also called sacred baboon, or Arabian baboon, large, powerful monkey of the plains and open-rock areas of the Red Sea coast, both in Africa (Eritrea, The Sudan) and on the opposite coast in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Characterized by their hairless, colored callosities (rump pads) and bare dog-like muzzles, baboons are large, ground dwelling primates. The IUCN listed this species as "least concern" in 2008. The hamadryas is the smallest baboon species, with a body length of about 60–70 cm (24–28 inches) and weight of up to 18 kg (40 pounds).  While males in most other baboon species are transferred away from their male relatives and into different troops, male hamadryas baboons remain in their natal clans or bands and have associations with their male kin. The remaining males form bachelor bands. Hamadryas baboons reach sexual maturity at about 4 years for females and between 5 to 7 years for males.  In addition, females demonstrate definite preferences for certain males, and rival males heed these preferences. Hamadryas baboons live in diverse habitats ranging from subdesert to savanna and into steppe, plains, and arid brushland.  During the dry season, the baboons eat leaves of the Dobera glabra and sisal leaves. Hapi, one of the Four Sons of Horus that guarded the organs of the deceased in ancient Egyptian religion, is also represented as hamadryas-headed; Hapi protected the lungs, hence the common sculpting of a stone or clay hamadryas head as the lid of the canopic jar that held the lungs and/or represented the protection of the lungs. 20 to 40 years.  The harem leader would retrieve the infants from their kidnappers, which is mostly an act to protect their offspring.. From rump to head baboons measure about 28 to 30 inches, and from head to tip of tail they are about 46 to 50 inches. This would include a quick flashing of the eyelids accompanied by a yawn to show off the teeth. Babi was also said to give the righteous dead continued virility, and to use his penis as the mast of a boat to convey them to the Egyptian paradise. Their size and weight depend on the species to which they belong. The mandrill, which is the monkey with the colorful face, was once classified in the same genus as the baboons, but was moved to its own in 1970.  Females that spend most of their time farther from the harem male are called "peripheral females". The olive, yellow, chacma, hamadryas and guinea baboons of the genus papio. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. There is considerable variation in size and weight depending on species. Species: Papio hamadryas* (Linnaeus, 1758) - Hamadryas baboon * General consensus is held among experts on baboon forms, but with broad disagreement over division of species within the genus. The female hamadryas does not have this distinguishing feature. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.  The species occurs in the proposed Yangudi Rassa National Park, the Harar Wildlife Sanctuary, and a number of wildlife reserves in the lower Awash valley and in northern Eritrea. The Gelada baboon are only found in the high grassland of the central Ethiopian plateau, which is the only place they can be hunted. Females are a light, olive-brown. Males are generally larger (between 40 and 65 pounds) than females (between 20 and 35 pounds). Sometimes, Thoth himself appears in the form of a hamadryas (often shown carrying the moon on his head), as an alternative to his more common representation as an ibis-headed figure.  The males limit the movements of the females, herding them with visual threats and grabbing or biting any that wander too far away. ... Members of the Chacma species are the largest in size forty seven inches tall and forty kilograms in weight on average. https://www.britannica.com/animal/hamadryas. Sigg, H, Stolba, A, Abegglen, J. Olive baboon (Papio anubis) Yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) Sacred baboon (Papio hamadryas) Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) Guinea baboon (Papio papio) Weight. The tribe is dominated by a few large adult males who constantly remain close to the females.  Visual threats are usually accompanied by these aggressive fights.  Baboons rest at the waterholes during midafternoon and also dig drinking holes only a short distance from natural waterholes. Several family groups will form a clan; clans gather to forms bands; bands come together to form troops. Demographic and life history parameters were estimated for a band of free-ranging hamadryas baboons, observed for 5.5 years in Ethiopia. , Hamadryas baboons have traditionally been thought of having a female transfer society with females being moved away from their relatives of the same sex.  Females can still associate and help their extended families despite their interactions being controlled by the harem males. Most social interaction occurs within small groups called one-male units or harems containing one male and up to 10 females, which the males lead and guard. Habitat. , Males may have a body measurement of up to 80 cm (31 in) and weigh 20–30 kg (44–66 lb); females weigh 10–15 kg (22–33 lb) and have a body length of 40–45 cm (16–18 in). Baboons have a large muzzle, rather like a dog, which houses their large canine teeth. Male hamadryas baboons can weigh from 44-66 lb (20-30 kg), while females weigh considerably less, typically from 22-33 lb (10-15 kg). There are five species of old world monkeys known as baboons.  When males reach puberty, they show a playful interest in young infants. A fifth species, the hamadryas baboon, lives in the hills along the Red Sea coasts of Africa and Arabia. Two to four clans f… Unlike the flat faces of most monkeys, a baboon’s face has a long snout and a squared-off, dog-like muzzle. , The hamadryas baboon is unusual among baboon and macaque species in that its society is strictly patriarchal. Females are brown, but males are silvery gray with an enormous cape of hair on the neck and shoulders. Stammbach, E. (1987) "Desert, forest, and mountain baboons: Multilevel societies". Adult males develop a shaggy, silvery-grey shoulder mane. The thumb is relatively long, allowing precision grip and manipulation of objects (Shefferly 2004) ... Hamadryas baboon habitats require elevated sleeping sites. The baboon has an unusual four-level social system called a multilevel society.  When a new male takes over a female, she develops sexual swellings which may be an adaptation that functions to prevent the new male from killing the offspring of the previous male. Both genders in baboon species have ischial callosities, forming padding for long periods of sitting and playing a role during reproduction. Zinner, D., T. Deschner. , Females within a harem do not display any dominance relationships as seen in many other baboon and macaque species. Adult males develop a shaggy, silvery-grey shoulder mane. Bands are the next level. ", pg 376-377 of. 112–120 in. Hamadryas baboons have a 15 to 24 inch (38 to 61 cm) tail.  Males rarely leave their bands, and females are occasionally transferred or traded between bands by males. This is more often done by "follower" males. The smallest baboon, the Guinea species, weighs 31 pounds and is 20 inches in length. -J. and Dasser, V. (1982) "Life history of hamadryas baboons: Physical development, infant mortality, reproductive parameters and family relationships". Hamadryas (hah-mah-DRY-US) baboons are big, strong monkeys. The different species have varying coat colors but have a similar build. The hamadryas baboon was a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians and appears in various roles in ancient Egyptian religion, hence its alternative name of 'sacred baboon'. The papio genus of "savanna" baboons has five old-world baboons: Hamadryas, Anubis, Yellow, Chacma, and Guinea. , The baboon's drinking activities also depend on the season.  Bands are the next level. Swedell L (2002) "Affiliation among females in wild hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas)". Hamadryas Baboon Size. Aging males often lose their females to followers and soon lose weight and their hair color changes to brown like a female. On the average, females reached menarche at 4.3 years of age and had their first infant at the age of 6.1 years. The other males and juveniles keep a lookout around the group and are responsible for raising the alarm in case of danger. Their body length is 60 - 86 cms (20 - 34 inches), their tail length is 41 - 58 CMS (16 - 23 inches) and they weigh between 22 and 37 Kgs (49 - 82 lbs). The Hamadryas Baboons largely rely on body language to communicate with conspecifics. Omissions? They can live into their forties in captivity. The male-led groups and bachelor bands come back together in the evening on cliffs, where they join together to sleep in herds numbering up to several hundred.  In addition, it is not uncommon for females of the same natal group to end up in the same harem. (2000) "Sexual swellings in female hamadryas baboons after male take-overs: 'Deceptive' swellings as a possible female counter-strategy against infanticideticide". The hamadryas baboon varies extends from the … Hamadryas Baboons live in rocky, hilly Ethiopian mountain territories. Diet. The male monkey was cover with the brown or light grey fur.  Bands also contain solitary males that are not harem leaders or followers and move freely within the band. , The baboon has an unusual four-level social system called a multilevel society. The Olive Baboon is one of the largest baboons, with the males being larger than the females. Male Hamadryas baboons make a dog-like bark, when there are predators nearby. , Rowe, Noel. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …widespread in Yemen is the hamadryas baboon (, Only the gelada, the hamadryas baboon of the mountainous regions of Ethiopia, and the chacma baboon, which lives on the rocky coast of the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, are ground sleepers; yet even these animals seek the protection of the cliffs and rocky precipices of their habitats…, The smallest is the hamadryas, or sacred baboon (. 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